Black Phosphorus Flakes

  • High quality BPs flakes (Not in needle form)
  • Optical anisotropy in exfoliated monolayer BPs sheets
  • Band gap of BPs crystals
  • EDS spectra from BPs exfoliated onto Si substrates
  • High quality BPs flakes (Not in needle form)
  • Raman spectrum collected from BPs crystals
  • SEM spectrum collected from BPs crystals
  • XRD data taken from BPs crystals
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This BPs product differs from our other 0.5 gram and 1.0 gram highly crystalline BPs in the following regards: Typically, BPs crystals appear in needle-like layered form. BPs crystal in this product have big sheet like appearance much similar to graphite and MoS2. These crystals are growth at much higher pressures in comparison to other BPs crystals on our website, they are much harder to synthesize in sheet like form, and has less weight. These crystals measure ~1cm in size as shown in the product images. 

Black phosphorus is an infrared (IR) semiconductor with a band gap of 0.3 eV in bulk which becomes ~1 eV when isolated down to monolayer (phosphorene). Our crystals are grown using special techniques (see below) in order to attain high crystalline anisotropy, minimal crystal defect density in the range of a record 3E9 - 1E10 cm-2 values, and high electronic / optical anisotropy. Thus, our crystals come ready for exfoliation with guaranteed crystalline, optical, and electronic anisotropyCrystals are packaged under argon and is tightly seal to retain intrinsic properties of BPs crystals.

Growth technique matters: Conventional BPs growth typically involves chemical assisting agents such as Au, Sn, SnI4, and others to synthesize BPs crystals at low temperatures and low pressures. This process creates highly defected, low electronic mobility, and crystalline anisotropy crystals. Our company is dedicated to bringing electronic, optical, and scientific grade crystals. We synthesize our crystals at pressures as high as 3.4GPa to stabilize black phosphorus crystals without using any chemical assists (transport agents). Crystallization occurs over two (2) months period to ensure growth is slow enough to create defect free crystals. Yet, we still bring large quantities of BPs crystals at affordable rates. Note one order may contain more than one single crystal.

The properties of Black phosphorus crystals

Material properties IR semiconductor (0.3 eV), anisotropic semiconductor
Crystal structure Orthorhombic C
Unit cell papameters a=0.332 nm, b=1.051 nm, c=0.434 nm, α=β=γ=90°.
Growth method Default: High pressure growth (highly crystalline/defect free)
Optional: Mineral assisted (compares to other vendors)
Purity 99.9999% guaranteed
Guaranteed Crystalline anisotropy, high mobility, PL emission


XRD data collected from Black phosphorus crystals


Raman spectrum collected from Black phosphorus crystals


 Confirmed Raman anisotropy in BPs crystals


Measured band gap from BPs crystals (note absence of below gap peaks - no localized excitons or absorption)


SEM images collected from black phosphorus crystals


EDS spectrum collected from BPs exfoliated onto Si substrates


SIMS purity information on BPs crystals


Partial List of Published Articles Using this Product

Emergence of Quantum Tunneling in Ambipolar Black Phosphorus Multilayers without Heterojunctions
Advanced Functional Materials 2021

P. Zereshki Photocarrier dynamics in monolayer phosphorene and bulk black phosphorus; Nanoscale, 10, 11307-11313 (2018)

J.V Riffle "Impact of vacancies on electronic properties of black phosphorus probed by STM  featured" Journal of Applied Physics 123, 044301 (2018)

Anisotropic Particle-Hole Excitations in Black Phosphorus, R. Schuster, J. Trinckauf, C. Habenicht, M. Knupfer, and B. Büchner. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 026404 – Published 10 July 2015

J,.He ."Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus" ACS Nano 10.1021/acsnano.5b02104 (2015_

R. Schuster "Anisotropic Particle-Hole Excitations in Black Phosphorus" Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 026404 – Published 10 July 2015

M. Baibarac ."Polarized Raman spectra of phosphorene in edge and top view measuring configurations" RSC Advances., 2016,6, 58003-58009

R. Schuster "Non-Generic Dispersion of Excitons in the Bulk of WSe2" Phys. Rev. B.94.085201 (2016)

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Additional Information

Material Class:
Material Class:
High mobility
Band Gap Range:
Band Gap Range:
Growth Method:
Mineral assist
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