Black Phosphorus Solution

  • Black Phosphorus Solution
  • Black Phosphorus Solution
  • Black Phosphorus Solution
  • Black Phosphorus Solution
  • Black Phosphorus Solution
  • Black Phosphorus Solution
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This product contains black phosphorus (BPs) few-layer flakes solution in a variety of chemicals. Examples include ethanol, isopropanol, DI, and others. The BPs solution has been developed by ultrasonic treatment of BPs high quality crystals synthesized through cubic anvil device high pressure growth technique. Since the starting material BPs is highly crystalline, ultrasonic treatment to delaminate BPs layers yields highly crystalline BPs flakes in the solution. The crystallinity of BPs nanomaterials has been confirmed through electron energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), Raman spectroscopy (FWHM<5 cm-1), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. Lateral sizes of BPs flakes deposited onto different substrates range from ~25nm - ~10 mm while thickness range from 1L to 10s of layers.

Note on volume, concentration, and solvent type: To reduce shipping costs, we ship supersaturated 2D solutions (~80-120 mg/L depending on the type of 2D layers). However, supersaturated solutions can be diluted to produce ~250-500mL of solution to deposit 2D layers onto desired substrates through simple and cost-effective spin-casting process. In our product, ethanol is used (and recommended) as the dispersant solvent owing to its environmental stability, thermal stability, dispersant properties, and non-contaminating nature. However, if your research needs other solvents, please contact us at

Sample Properties

Sample amount 2 mL of super saturated solution in ethanol (100mg/L) [More quatities may be arranged free of charge]
~250 mL when diluted (1-3mg/L)
Solution type Ethanol (highly recommended) [see notes above]
Thickness / size range 1 to 10s of layers in thickness / 10nm-10mm in lateral size
Fundamental properties Infrared to visible range anisotropic semiconductors
Crystal structure Orthorhombic
Unit cell parameters a=0.330 nm, b=1.047 nm, c=0.436 nm; α= β=γ=90°
Production method Ultrasonic treatment assisted delamination of BPs crystals
Characterization methods Raman, EDS, AFM, SEM (contact us for more information)


  • Identification. BPs solutions created by delamination of BPs crystals (grown by high pressure technique) through ultrasonication technique
  • Physical dimensions. Few-layer in thickness (thicker pieces might be observed depending on usage) and 10nm to 10 microns in lateral dimensions.
  • Purity. 99.999% purity as determined by nano-SIMS measurements
  • Crystallinity. Highly crystalline nanomaterials. No amorphous sheets, contaminants, or hidden secondary phases.
  • Dispersant solution. Ethanol is highly recommended though other solvents can be prepared on demand.
  • Support. 2Dsemiconductors USA is an American owned, regulated, and operated company. Our customers are well-protected by international as well as strict American customer laws and regulations. We give full technical support and guarantee your satisfaction with our well-established customer

SEM images taken from black phosphorus solution spin cast onto SiO2/Si substrates

SEM images of black phosphorus solution

2D solution SEM images

EDS spectrum measured directly from BPs solution deposited onto other substrates

EDS spectrum on BPs solution

Raman spectrum of BPs solutions

Raman spectrum of 2D BPs solution

Frequently asked questions

Q1: What is the volume of the solution? 

A: Each order can either contain 2mL of supersaturated monolayer solution (~200mg/L) or dense 20mL solutions (~20mg/L). We recommend using 2mL solutions as this will cut down the shipping charges and shipping times.

Q2: Are these 2D solutions consist of 100% monolayers? 

A: This will depend on your requirements. We can design monolayer, few-layer, multi-layer, and even bulk layered solutions. Please identify what kind of solution (material type) you prefer to use during check out.

Q3: How about the solution types?

A: This will also depend on your application. We have capability to accommodate IPA, H2O, DMF, NMP, and many others. Just let us know what you have in mind.



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Additional Information

Material class:
Material class:
High mobility
Band gap range:
Band gap range:
Growth method:
Solution Phase
Solution Type:
Solution Type:
Solution Type:
DI Water
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Solution Type:
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